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What Is The Terpene D-Limonene?

Limonene Terpene

D-Limonene, or simply Limonene, is not only the third most common terpene in cannabis, but the second most common terpene found in nature generally – providing the strong citrus aroma of lemons, oranges, grapefruits, and other fruits.

Limonene is known for its aromatherapeutic benefits such as uplifting your mood. While it is found in indicas, sativas and hybrids, its known for helping sativas to create an exhilarating buzz, and also help to can offset the potential for lower moods or couch lock in indicas. 

If you are looking for more information about this terpenoid, then you are in luck. In this article, we will tackle the many benefits of this terpenoid.


What is D-limonene?

Terpenes are fragrant oils found in many plants throughout nature, and in cannabis they are secreted by the frosty-looking trichomes alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD. Terpenes not only determine the smell of a cannabis strain, they may also modify its effects either through aromatherapy, directly interacting with our endocannabinoid system, or both.

Limonene is grown on plants not only as a defense mechanism to protect from predators due to its strong scent, but also to protect against harmful microbes, due to its anti-bacterial properties.

The D-Limonene compound offers many health benefits for people that consume it. Its benefits include: anti-anxiety, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. These health benefits are the reason why manufacturers of CBD oils are selling strains high in limonene or adding extra of the Limonene terpene into CBD oil products.

D-Limonene in Cannabis

Another element that is present in some cannabis strains and contributes to the plant’s unique flavor and scent is d-limonene. Citrus-like aromas are typical in strains potent in D-limonene, and this specific terpene may also contribute to the strain’s therapeutic potential.

The Role of D-Limonene in Cannabis Strains: A Citrus Twist to Your Experience

D-limonene is a terpene prevalent in nature, notably in cannabis. As a primary component of citrus fruit rinds, it gives certain strains of cannabis a distinctive, fruity aroma and flavor. In the following sections, we will discuss D-Limonene’s impact on the aroma, flavor, and potential effects of various cannabis strains.

Flavor and Scent: Adding a Citrus Burst

Some strains of cannabis have a distinct citrus aroma due to D-Limonene. This bright, zesty scent can range from sweet orange to tangy lemon or refreshing lime. The presence of D-Limonene in a cannabis strain enhances the overall aroma and adds a pleasant citrus taste when consumed.

Synergistic Effects: The Entourage Effect

The entourage effect is a phenomenon where various compounds found in cannabis like cannabinoids and terpenes, work synergistically to create a more profound impact than any single compound alone. For example, d-Limonene, combined with other terpenes and cannabinoids like THC and CBD, may contribute to a more nuanced experience.

Potential Therapeutic Effects

While more research is needed to understand the potential therapeutic effects of D-Limonene in cannabis fully, some studies suggest that this terpene may have potential benefits:

  • Mood-enhancing effects: D-Limonene may help improve mood and reduce stress, potentially providing a more uplifting and energizing cannabis experience.
  • Anti-inflammatory and pain relief: Some studies have shown that D-Limonene possesses anti-inflammatory properties, which may contribute to pain relief in certain cannabis strains.
  • Antioxidant properties: As an antioxidant, D-Limonene may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, potentially contributing to overall health and wellness.

Anti-inflammatory Benefits

The anti-inflammatory effects of Limonene are well documented, especially in its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (which is commonly found in colitis, and most recently in victims of the coronavirus). Chronic inflammation is absolutely rampant in our country, with 133 million Americans experiencing it in some way (40% of the population!). This is important because has been found to play a role in almost every chronic disease.

Using CBD oils or medications that have Limonene will help you combat inflammation in the future. Remember – prevention through diet, supplementation and lifestyle – is better than a cure!

Antioxidant Advantages

Antioxidants help decrease cell damage. Limonene illustrates antioxidant effects that are beneficial for its users – it helps your immune system by assisting with the removal of free radicals throughout the body. In addition, limonene protects cells from oxidative stress induced by the exogenous addition of H(2)O(2).

Where Else Can I Use Limonene?

Aside from CBD oils, Limonene is a popular food additive. It increases a dish’s flavor and aroma. Brands also add this to their cleaning products, beauty products, and insect repellants for its pleasant smell and antibacterial / anti-fungal properties.

Manufacturers extract the Limonene terpene through the process of hydro-distillation. It can either be extracted from hemp or marijuana, or from other botanicals, and then reintroduced to pure CBD distillate along with other terpenes to recreate a flower strain.

Keep It Clean: Anti-fungal and Antibacterial


Boost Your Heart Health

The term “lemon fresh” exists for a reason! Limonene is also known for its anti-viral, anti-fungal and antibacterial properties. Studies have shown limonene to fight against the trifecta of certain viruses, bacteria and fungi. As with many terpenes, plants produce limonene to help protect them against harmful microbes – and they can help protect our bodies as well.

Supports A Good Mood

Inhalation of limonene vapor increases serotonin and dopamine levels in the regions of the brain that are associated with anxiety. It can also promote muscle relaxation – and in scientific studies of mice, it even reduced Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms (who knew mice could have OCD)! Interestingly, we don’t yet know whether these effects of limonene are from aromatherapy or from directly affecting brain cells – unlike some of the other terpenes that have well-defined brain targets, such as linalool and b-caryophyllene.

Any Precautions When Using Limonene?

Limonene is approved as a food additive by the FDA – it won’t harm your body to ingest. However, using a very strong, undiluted dose on your skin can cause skin reactions or irritations – so make sure its properly mixed within a product (basically, use caution if you’re handling it as a raw essential oil).

If you are a fan of CBD flower or vapes, consider trying the ones that have Limonene. CBD oil on its own is useful, but combined with terpenes provides many desirable therapeutic benefits.

Isolating and Extracting D-Limonene: Techniques for Harnessing Nature’s Citrus Essence

D-Limonene is a terpene that occurs naturally in many plants, notably citrus fruits and is prized for its energizing scent, delicious flavor, and theoretical medicinal benefits. However, specific extraction methods must be used to get pure D-Limonene from plants. 

Steam Distillation: The Art of Separating Terpenes

D-Limonene and other essential oils and terpenes are often extracted from plants using steam distillation. The procedure entails the following steps:

  • Distillation equipment is used to process the plant material, commonly the peels of citrus fruits.
  • The essential oils are released from the plant cells when steam is created and circulated through the substance.
  • The steam and essential oil vapor rise into a condensation chamber, cooled, and condensed into a liquid form.
  • The essential oil, being less dense than water, floats on the surface, allowing for easy separation and collection.

Steam distillation effectively isolates D-Limonene and other essential oils from plant materials while preserving their aromatic and therapeutic properties.

Cold-Press Extraction: A Mechanical Approach

Cold-press extraction, also known as expression or expeller pressing, is a mechanical method used primarily for extracting D-Limonene from citrus fruit peels. The process involves the following steps:

  • The citrus peels are first cleaned and prepared, often by grating or chopping, to increase the surface area exposed to the extraction process.
  • The prepared peels are then placed in a mechanical press, which applies pressure to rupture the oil-containing cells.
  • The released essential oils, small amounts of juice, and other plant materials are collected and separated using a centrifuge or filtration system.

Cold-press extraction is an efficient and straightforward method for obtaining D-Limonene from citrus peels, producing a high-quality, unadulterated end product.

Comparing Steam Distillation and Cold-Press Extraction

Both steam distillation and cold-press extraction have their advantages and drawbacks when it comes to isolating D-Limonene:

  • Purity: Steam distillation is typically used to achieve higher purity in the final product. This is so that the essential oil can be appropriately separated from any water-soluble compounds in the plant material during steam distillation. The finished product may still contain some contaminants after the cold-press extraction procedure.
  • Heat sensitivity: Essential oils and heat-sensitive terpenes may be degraded by the high temperatures employed in steam distillation. Due to the high temperatures involved in steam distillation, this is possible. Chemicals susceptible to high temperatures should be extracted using a cold press because it doesn’t use heat.
  • Versatility: Although steam distillation is flexible enough to extract essential oils from a variety of plant materials, cold-press extraction is primarily utilized for citrus fruit peels.

Combining D-Limonene with Other Terpenes: The Entourage Effect Unveiled

D-Limonene is a prevalent terpene found in various plants, including cannabis, and is well-known for its refreshing citrus aroma and potential therapeutic properties. The entourage effect is a phenomenon that describes the synergistic interactions between various compounds found in cannabis, such as cannabinoids and terpenes. 

Below are the potential benefits of combining D-Limonene with other terpenes and cannabinoids:

The Entourage Effect: A Symphony of Compounds

The entourage effect suggests that the individual components of cannabis, including terpenes like D-Limonene and cannabinoids like THC and CBD, work together to create a more profound impact than any single compound alone. This synergistic interaction can enhance therapeutic benefits, improve bioavailability, and create a more balanced, nuanced experience for the user.

D-Limonene and Myrcene: A Calming Collaboration

Myrcene is another abundant terpene found in cannabis, known for its earthy, musky aroma and potential sedative effects. However, Myrcene is known for its calming effects, and D-Limonene is the perfect match for its elevating and mood-enhancing characteristics.

D-Limonene and Pinene: A Focus-Boosting Duo

The pine-scented terpene pinene may benefit cognition, including enhanced attention and memory. In addition, these two terpenes and D-Limonene’s mood-enhancing properties may create an energizing and exciting mental experience.

D-Limonene and Cannabinoids: A Well-Rounded Partnership

The interaction between D-Limonene and cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, may also contribute to the entourage effect:

  • THC and D-Limonene: The uplifting and energizing properties of D-Limonene may help counteract some of the potential sedative effects of THC, creating a more balanced and enjoyable experience.
  • CBD and D-Limonene: Both compounds’ potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may synergistically enhance overall therapeutic benefits.

Customizing Your Cannabis Experience

Understanding the entourage effect and the potential synergistic interactions between D-Limonene and other terpenes or cannabinoids allows consumers to customize their cannabis experience more effectively. By selecting strains or products with specific terpene and cannabinoid profiles, users can tailor their experience to suit their preferences and desired outcomes.

Strains With D-Limonene

Here are the TribeTokes CBD Vape Strains that contain therapeutic doses of Limonene – definitely check them out if you think this terpene can benefit you!

Other examples of well-known cannabis strains with high levels of D-Limonene include:

  • Super Lemon Haze: Super Lemon Haze, a Sativa-dominant strain, is well-known for its pungent lemon aroma, which originates from the high levels of D-Limonene it contains.
  • Tangie: Tangie has a tangerine-like flavor and high D-Limonene content.
  • Orange Cookies: Thanks to the D-Limonene content, this hybrid strain exudes a delightfully tangy citrus aroma and flavor reminiscent of orange cookies.
  • Lillybean: Jillybean is a hybrid strain high in D-Limonene and has a distinctive fruity, citrus aroma.

Frequently Asked Questions

How does D-Limonene interact with other terpenes and cannabinoids?

The entourage effect describes the synergistic effects of several cannabinoids and terpenes, such as D-limonene. Increased therapeutic efficacy and a richer, more nuanced cannabis experience can result from the synergy between the plant’s numerous components. D-Limonene’s calming effect, for instance, may be enhanced by mixing it with terpenes like Myrcene or Pinene.

Where can I find D-Limonene in cannabis strains?

D-Limonene is found in some strains of cannabis and is responsible for the strain’s characteristic lemony scent and flavor. D-Limonene is found in particularly high concentrations in the following strains:

  • Super Lemon Haze
  • Tangie
  • Jack Herer

Can I use D-Limonene in aromatherapy?

Yes, D-Limonene is often used in aromatherapy, either on its own or as a component of essential oil blends. Its uplifting and refreshing citrus scent is believed to help promote happiness and positivity, making it a popular choice for those looking to enhance their mood and overall well-being.

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